On Identifiable Aborts

Many cryptographic protocols attempt to satisfy a notion of “identifiable abort”, where if a malicious party causes the protocol to prematurely halt, then they can be detected. In practice, I think that this notion isn’t all that useful.

The motivation behind identifiable aborts is to strongly disincentivize causing protocols to abort, because doing so means that you’ll be found out, at least if the protocol actually satisfies identifiable abort. Even if a protocol can’t prevent aborts entirely, the theory is that identifiable aborts prevents them from happening in practice, because the consequences are so prohibitive.

I have two major gripes with identifiable aborts:

  1. The “identifiable abort” portion of protocols is very often underspecified, sometimes requiring a complicated “detective” protocol to attribute aborts after they’ve happened.
  2. In practice there are faults, like network partitions, or invalid signatures, which are fundamentally not attributable.

Because of these two gripes, I think that achieving identifiable aborts in practice is much more difficult than people think, and cannot be done in a completely repeatable and automatic way. A practical identifiable abort scheme requires, in my view, tight integration with the application making use of the protocol.

In the rest of this post, I’ll explain the notion of identifiable aborts in more detail, and hopefully convince you, somewhat, of why I think this notion falls short in practice.


Let’s start with some background on cryptographic protocols. The general situation here is that a group of parties need to cooperate to perform some task. For example, they might want to run an auction using their bids, or they might want to use their shares of a private key in order to create a signature. To do this, they need to use some kind of protocol which specifies how they should interact and what they need to compute in order to complete this task.

There are two categories of properties you want from this kind of protocol:

At a basic level, one liveness property we want is that the task gets completed. We also want to know that the task has been computed correctly, which could be considered a safety property. In cryptographic protocols, we also often care about privacy, making sure that secret values can be used without being revealed.

When thinking about these properties, you also have to consider what kind of failures can happen. In fact, you might have to consider how malicious participants might be able to affect the result.

The basic threat-models for failures in these kinds of protocols are

Why You Might Want Identifiable Aborts

One property you might care about is guaranteed output delivery. This means that malicious participants can’t prevent others from learning the result. Preventing others from learning the result by stopping execution is what we call an abort. Now, aborts are related to liveness. An abort doesn’t make a protocol return the wrong result, it just halts the execution of the protocol.

One problem is that if a majority of participants are malicious, then it’s not possible to prevent them from causing aborts. This is a theorem in distributed systems theory, and there’s no direct way around it.

Now, while we can’t prevent malicious parties from causing aborts, what we can try do is to make it so that aborts allow us to identify these parties. As an example, if you have a simple protocol which consists of everyone announcing their favorite food, and then waiting until everyone has spoken, then it’s easy to detect malicious participants: if they try to stall the protocol, it’s also evident that they’re not speaking.

This bring us to the notion of identifiable aborts, which is a property that a protocol can satisfy. If a protocol has identifiable aborts, it means that while it cannot prevent malicious parties from causing the protocol to halt, it can make sure that at least one of those parties is identified upon such a malicious abort.

Now, if this property is actually achieved, then it’s almost as good as preventing aborts. This is because causing an abort can now have a penalty associated with it. Since a malicious participant causing aborts can be detected, they can also be penalized, by being removed from the set of participants. You could also require participants to put up some kind of “security deposit”, which would be taken from them if they were ever caught, thus providing a direct economic penalty for causing aborts. This kind of penalty is often referred to as slashing.

On the other hand, with “unidentifiable” aborts, you can cause harm to the execution of the protocol without any penalty. This might allow a malicious participant to severely degrade the performance of any application making use of that protocol; a denial-of-service attack, essentially.

Identifiable Aborts are Complicated

When analyzing protocols, you need to use some kind of model of how participants can interact: trying to model individual TCP packets isn’t going to make proving things about your protocol very easy. In practice, you abstract away this communication using a vastly simplified model. The basic model usually assumes that the communication channels between peers are authenticated, in the sense that you can verify that messages were actually sent by the peer who claims to have sent it. Often you’ll also implicitly assume that this authentication is “shareable”. If you receive a message from some peer $A$, then you can convince other peers that $A$ sent you that message. This can be accomplished in practice by having a public key associated with each peer, and having each peer sign their messages.

One issue is that the implementation details of this model can actually matter, and yet they’re often swept under the rug. The idea of signing messages is relatively obvious, to the point that it isn’t explicitly part of the descriptions for protocols. One thorny issue is how to deal with invalid signatures, which is rarely explicitly considered when analyzing the abort properties of a protocol. We’ll get to this specific issue later.

One bigger problem is that identifiable aborts are often a tacked on concern to protocols, and are sometimes poorly specified. One common pattern is for identifiable aborts to be possible but to require substantial detective work to actually implement.

As an example, let’s consider authenticated broadcast. With this primitive, you want one participant to send a message to the other participants, while guaranteeing that they can’t cheat by sending different messages to this people. This is an important primitive for many protocols. Often you need to commit to the random choices you make in a protocol, and it’s important that everyone agrees on what you’ve committed to. Using an authenticated broadcast makes it so that you can’t send different values to different people.

Often this primitive is used in protocols without actually specifying an implementation. A common method to implement it is with an echo broadcast. The idea is that after receiving a value from the broadcaster, each participant then re-transmits this value to the other participants. Each participant can then compare the value they initially received with these new values. If they see the same values, they know that the initial broadcast was consistent.

This protocol is also often used in contexts where identifiable aborts are required. In principle, this protocol satisfies identifiable abort. The idea is that if each message is signed, and the broadcaster sends two different messages, then the parties will eventually be able to come to a consensus about this fact. Doing this involves a lot of implicit work that’s not really specified. For example, each party needs to verify the signatures on all the messages they’ve received, otherwise they could be deceived into believing that the broadcaster cheated, when they in fact didn’t. Another important detail is that the messages need to be precisely bound to that execution of the protocol. Otherwise, you could use previously signed messages in order to attempt to make others believe that the broadcaster cheated in this round. This kind of session binding is a detail which is often omitted from protocol descriptions, but actually starts to matter if you need identifiable aborts.

Anyhow, all of this is just to say that in practice providing identifiable aborts is often more complicated than hinted at in protocol descriptions.

So, even with an abstracted model, identifiable aborts are complicated. Nonetheless, they might be worth it, if they can effectively prevent spurious aborts from happening.

Unfortunately, I don’t think this is the case in practice.

The Network is not Perfect

One fundamental problem is that some aborts can’t be attributed to any particular person. Aborts which involve network failures can happen spuriously, and it’s not possible to blame any participant in particular when they happen. If a participant stops communicating, it might be that their machine has crashed, or that a network partition has formed between them and the other participants, or a variety of other reasons.

One aspect of network failures which stops them from being attributable is that participants might disagree about the nature of a failure. For example, if two nodes are separated from the other nodes because of a network partition, the two nodes might believe the other nodes have crashed, and conversely, the other nodes might think those two nodes are the ones that have failed. In general, it’s difficult to have immediate consensus over the state of the network after a failure, and establishing consensus over what happened isn’t trivial either.

Another pernicious aspect of network failures is that they can be induced. For example, it’s possible to conduct a denial of service (DoS) attack against a node, which will appear as if that node has crashed. Effectively, the resources of that node will be tied up with the DoS attack, and the node won’t be able to respond to the normal messages of the protocol. Another possibility would be to attempt a bottleneck in the network between the nodes. While it can be possible to do a root cause analysis of these kinds of attacks, the attributability you get is much weaker than the cryptographic identity that identifiable aborts try to achieve.

Now, these kinds of failures are usually below the level of abstraction that we use to model communication. In some sense, they’re “out of scope” when considering identifiable aborts. Nonetheless, for practical deployment of protocols, network failures must be considered.

While artificial network failures may not be attributable, they are a lot noisier than the kind of aborts we might cause inside the protocol. A DoS attack is a not a silent way to cause an abort, it’s relatively easy to detect that it’s happening, even if the culprit can’t be identified.

Identification Requires Authentication

If you want to achieve identifiable aborts, you need the messages to be authenticated in some way. This authentication needs to be cryptographic, using some kind of signature scheme which can’t be forged, or something of similar strength.

If messages are not authenticated in this way, than anybody can send messages on behalf of another participant. This would allow them to maliciously trigger an abort which gets blamed on that participant.

In practice, you might try and identify the author of messages using their network address. In this case, spoofing a message would require also spoofing packets. While this is possible, it’s not necessarily trivial either.

Sometimes communication is done via a third party, like a bulletin board. I’ve seen this setup before in the context of threshold signatures, especially for cryptocurrency bridges. In this case, you make use of an existing blockchain as a broadcast mechanism, which also adds a historic record of the protocol’s execution. In this case, pretending to be someone else is trivial without signatures; there’s no need to even spoof packets.

Handling Invalid Authentication

Because signatures are necessary for identifiable aborts, this brings me to my favorite “trick question” when it comes to thinking about them:

What do you do with an invalid signature?

If you continue executing the protocol after seeing an invalid signature, then you’ll be susceptible to all of the issues we talked about in the previous section. If signatures aren’t checked, it’s trivial to pretend to be someone else.

On the other hand, if you abort the protocol after seeing an invalid signature, then a malicious participant can cause spurious aborts by simply sending unsigned messages. If you try to punish that participant, you run into the fundamental issue that unsigned messages cannot be attributed. This is because a message with an invalid signature can be generated by any participant. We run into all of the issues from the previous section, once again.

This issue of how to deal with signature failures is also usually swept under the rug. The model we use for communication assumes authenticated channels. This is a fair assumption: we know how to build these. The issue is that identifiable aborts are built on top of this assumption, without considering whether identifiability can be implemented at this lower level of abstraction.


I’ve been pretty harsh about identifiable aborts so far, so perhaps I should caveat some of my statements a bit more.

First, the rationale behind identifiable aborts is sound. Spurious aborts are a real concern for protocols, and being able to identify aborts can help apply incentives to heavily discourage participants from attempting to cause them.

My criticism is more so that identifiable aborts are poorly implemented at the theoretical level, and depend on assumptions about the underlying communication layer which are not necessarily implementable in an identifiable way.

Nonetheless, spurious aborts at the protocol level are often much easier to trigger, and much more silent than other kinds of failures. Because of this, it can still be desirable to implement “identifable aborts”.

I’d just caution people to not consider them as a panacea. I’m skeptical of attaching automatic slashing mechanisms to identifiable aborts, because you might end up with systems where it’s possible to cause honest participants to be slashed, which is even worse.

In practice, I think that if a cryptographic protocol starts suffering from spurious aborts, some kind of human investigation needs to happen. Identifiable aborts are useful here, because without some form of identifiability, it’s difficult to attribute fault to any set of participants. However, trying to automatically attribute fault might potentially allow for exploitation of this attribution mechanism, or might fail to capture the aborts stemming from lower layers, like authentication or networking.

In summary, identifiable aborts require more work to implement than their paper specifications, and don’t entirely prevent spurious aborts because of practical violations of their communication model. If you’re trying to make use of identifiable aborts in practice, I’d recommend proceeding with great caution. They’re not a panacea, and I don’t think it’s yet possible to use them safely automate post-mortem analysis of protocol failures. Nonetheless, having identifiable aborts can be necessary to do any kind of analysis of protocol failures at all.